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Procedural sedation, Conscious sedation, Sedation program, Pediatric, Sedation education


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BACKGROUND: The use of procedural sedation outside the operating theatre has increased in hospital settings and has gained popularity among non-anesthesiologists. Sedative agents used for procedural pain, although effective, also pose significant risks to the patient if used incorrectly. There is currently no universally accepted program of education for practitioners using or introducing procedural sedation into their practice. There is emerging literature identifying structured procedural sedation programs (PSPs) as a method of ensuring a standardized level of competency among staff and reducing risks to the patient. We hypothesize that programs of education for healthcare professionals using procedural sedation outside the operating theatre are beneficial in improving patient care, safety, practitioner competence and reducing adverse event rates.

METHODS: Electronic databases will be systematically searched for studies (randomized and non-randomized) examining the effectiveness of structured PSPs from 1966 to present. Database searches will be supplemented by contact with experts, reference and citation checking, and a grey literature search. No language restriction will be imposed. Screening of titles and abstracts, and data extraction will be performed by two independent reviewers. All disagreements will be resolved by discussion with an independent third party. Data analysis will be completed adhering to procedures outlined in the Cochrane Handbook of Systematic Reviews of Interventions. If the data allows, a meta-analysis will be performed.

DISCUSSION: This review will cohere evidence on the effectiveness of structured PSPs on sedation events and patient outcomes within the hospital and other acute care settings. In addition, it will examine key components identified within a PSP associated with patient safety and improved patient outcomes.Trial registration: PROSPERO registration number: CRD42013003851.


Medicine and Health Sciences


McCoy S, Wakai A, Blackburn C, Barrett M, Murphy A, Brenner M, Larkin P, Crispino-O Connell G, Ratnapalan S, O Sullivan R. Structured sedation programs in the emergency department, hospital and other acute settings: protocol for systematic review of effects and events. Systematic Reviews. 2013;2(1):89

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additional file.doc (48 kB)
Additional file 1: Data Extraction Form.